Association Between Walkability Index And Pedestrians’ Perspective In Reducing Exposure Of Schoolchildren To Ground Level Ozone

Zainordin, Nazatul Syadia (2017) Association Between Walkability Index And Pedestrians’ Perspective In Reducing Exposure Of Schoolchildren To Ground Level Ozone. PhD thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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Abstract

Ground level ozone (O3) is one of the gaseous pollutants that significantly affects human health and environment. Exposure to this pollutant and its precursors is more severe to children than adult due to lower breathing height. O3 precursors are mainly emitted from vehicle exhausts. Non-motorized travel has become an option in solving these problems. Therefore, this research is focus on school children and the aims are to assess availability and current condition of the facilities by developing the walkability index. Pedestrians’ perspectives and attitudes were also considered to gain their perceptions on provided pedestrian facilities and their attitudes in changing current mode to walking. Ambient O3 concentrations and its precursors were also investigated to observe the current level of exposure of these pollutants to school children. Based on the walkability index for all 22 selected schools, SPP recorded the highest index which is nine while SPC, SBJ, SSA, and STK recorded the lowest which are one. Much attention has been given in terms of geometric designs of pedestrian facilities in urban area compared to sub-urban and rural area due to high traffic volume. From the analysis of one-way ANOVA and independent t-test, respondents’ score on the elements of the pedestrian facilities and level of agreement with environmental problems, awareness and potential in changing the current mode to walking were related to types of respondents, race and gender. Nevertheless, factor of travel distance did not influence the given score and level of agreement by respondents. While assessing the ambient concentrations, most pollutants mainly O3 precursors were much higher at SST due to more anthropogenic sources nearby the area when O3 concentrations were higher at SSH (32.48 ± 15.97 ppb). Lastly, FFBP models were developed and it is found that SSN has the best FFBP models with the highest accuracy measures and lower error measures. In conclusion, higher walkability index is expected to increase the willingness amongst school children to walk to school regardless of the travel distance from home to school. Geometric design of pedestrian facilities and safety measures nearby schools area were found to be the most important issues to look through in order to encourage them to change current mode to walking. This change could reduce the exposure of schoolchildren to O3, and its precursors. As for development of a new predictive tool for future concentrations nearby four schools area may help local authorities to observe and predict the exposure of O3 concentrations on school children with the availability of independent parameters.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Subjects: T Technology
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Kampus Kejuruteraan (Engineering Campus) > Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Awam (School of Civil Engineering) > Thesis
Depositing User: Mr Mohamed Yunus Mat Yusof
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2019 08:12
Last Modified: 19 Nov 2020 02:59
URI: http://eprints.usm.my/id/eprint/45819

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