The Effect Of Palm Kernel Shell Hybridization And Surface Treatments On Properties Of Natural Rubber Composites

Daud, Shuhairiah (2017) The Effect Of Palm Kernel Shell Hybridization And Surface Treatments On Properties Of Natural Rubber Composites. Masters thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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In this work, the curing characteristics, mechanical properties, thermal property and biodegradability of the composites were studied. Firstly, the effect of palm kernel shell (PKS) loading on the properties of NR composites were studied. NR/PKS composites were prepared by incorporating PKS at filler loading range of 0 to 20 phr into NR matrix using a laboratory size two roll mill. The results indicated that the scorch time (ts2), cure time (t90), tensile strength, elongation at break, fatigue life and thermal stability decreased with increasing filler loading, whereas maximum torque (MH ) and modulus at 100% (M100) and 300%(M300) elongation showed an increasing trend. The rubber-filler interaction of the NR composites increased with increasing filler loading. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies indicate that the increasing PKS loading weakens the rubber-filler interaction. Secondly, the effect of silane coupling agent (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) on the properties of NR/PKS composites were investigated. Results showed that an improvement in the properties examined due to the enhanced rubber-filler interaction in the NR composites, which was proven in the SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies. Thirdly, the effect of sodium hydroxide surface pre-treatment of PKS was studied. The maximum torque, scorch time and cure time showed decreasing trend in treated PKS-filled NR composites. The tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus at 100% (M100) and 300% (M300) elongation, fatigue life and rubber filler interaction were all showed decreasing trend. The thermal stability of the composites were also decreased. However, the mechanical properties of treated PKS-filled NR composites were enhanced compared to NR/PKS composites. Later, the effect of partial replacement of PKS by commercial fillers was investigated. The PKS/ commercial filler ratio was fixed to 20 phr. The substitution of commercial fillers have provided reinforcement an improved the properties of the NR composites. Lastly, the effect of natural weathering and soil burial were studied. The natural weathering and soil burial tests were carried out for six months. From the result obtained, deterioration in the properties of NR/PKS composites was observed for both soil buried and weathered composites. The extent of degradation in tensile properties of NR/PKS composites indicated the effect of exposure of photo-oxidation and biodegradation towards the composites. The FTIR spectrum is further confirming the occurrence of photo-oxidation and biodegradation.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: T Technology
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA401-492 Materials of engineering and construction. Mechanics of materials
Divisions: Kampus Kejuruteraan (Engineering Campus) > Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahan & Sumber Mineral (School of Material & Mineral Resource Engineering) > Thesis
Depositing User: Mr Mohamed Yunus Mat Yusof
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2020 01:23
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2021 03:42

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