Hydrothermal and Vapothermal Carbonization of Agricultural Wastes to Produce Solid Fuel

Yeoh, Keat Hor (2016) Hydrothermal and Vapothermal Carbonization of Agricultural Wastes to Produce Solid Fuel. Masters thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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    Abstract

    Kajian telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan pengkarbonan hidrotermo dan waptermo dalam memproses beberapa sisa-sisa pertanian. Sebuah reaktor dengan dua ruang telah direka untuk menjalankan kedua-dua proses pengkarbonan berkaitan. Dari eksperimen, pemadatan tenaga tertinggi yang dicapai adalah 1.280 untuk pengkarbonan waptermo dan 1.145 untuk pengkarbonan hidrotermo dalam memproses tandan kosong kelapa sawit. Perbandingan hidrochar yang dihasilkan daripada keduadua proses menunjukkan bahawa bahan-bahan daripada pengkarbonan waptermo mempunyai nilai pemanasan dan kandungan karbon tetap yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan bahan-bahan daripada pengkarbonan hidrotermo. Penurunan kandungan bahan volatil kira-kira 20% dan penaikan kandungan karbon tetap sebanyak 70-95% dapat diperhatikan dalam produk pengkarbonan waptermo berbanding dengan bahan mentah.Dengan sokongan daripada imej SEM dan carta DTG, dapat disimpulkan bahawa mekanisme tindak balas adalah berbeza untuk pengkarbonan hidrotermo dan waptermo. An investigation was carried out to study the effects of hydrothermal and vapothermal carbonization on various agricultural wastes. A dual chamber reactor was designed to carry out the hydrothermal and vapothermal carbonization processes. From the experiments, the highest energy densification achieved was 1.280 in vapothermal carbonization and 1.145 in hydrothermal carbonization for oil palm empty fruit bunches. Comparison of the hydrochar produced from both processes shows that vapothermal carbonized materials have higher heating values and higher fixed carbon contents as compared to those from hydrothermal carbonization process. Volatile matter of vapothermal carbonized materials have drops about 20% while their fixed carbon content are increased by 70-95% compare to the raw feedstock. With the supports of the SEM pictures and DTG curves of the products, it was concluded that the reaction mechanism during the hydrothermal and vapothermal carbonization are different. Devolatization was found to be the main reason that increases the overall energy content in vapothermal carbonization, while formation of 2,5-HMF which gives a sharp peak at around 340°C in the DTG curves was suggested as the reason that led to the increase in energy content in hydrothermal carbonized materials. Other than that, this project also showed that lower water to biomass ratio led to higher energy densification. A comparison of torrefaction, hydrothermal and vapothermal carbonization processes also showed that hydrothermal and vapothermal carbonization are capable to suppress the deposition of tar on the reactor wall during the carbonization process.

    Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
    Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
    T Technology > TP Chemical Technology > TP248.13-248.65 Biotechnology
    Divisions: Kampus Kejuruteraan (Engineering Campus) > Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Mekanikal (School of Mechanical Engineering) > Thesis
    Depositing User: Mr Badli Syahar Bakhtier
    Date Deposited: 17 Mar 2017 09:26
    Last Modified: 02 Jun 2017 15:34
    URI: http://eprints.usm.my/id/eprint/32392

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