Development Of A Novel Palm Kernel Testa Removal Method And Characterization Of Its Effects

Zuknik, Mark Harris (2016) Development Of A Novel Palm Kernel Testa Removal Method And Characterization Of Its Effects. PhD thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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    Abstract

    Dalam kajian ini, satu kaedah baru untuk penyingkiran testa dari isirung sawit telah dibangunkan menggunakan rawatan berjujukan dengan natrium karbonat (Na2CO3) dan hidrogen peroksida (H2O2). Untuk menjalankan rawatan paling berkesan bagi 100g isirung sawit, syarat-syarat untuk memastikan penyingkiran testa secara menyeluruh adalah seperti berikut: kepekatan Na2CO3 (C1) dan kepekatan H2O2 (C2) pada tahap 30%; suhu Na2CO3 (T1) dan suhu H2O2 (T2) masing-masing pada suhu 90°C dan 80°C; manakala tempoh rawatan Na2CO3 (t1) dan tempoh rawatan H2O2 (t2) masing-masing pada jangka masa 80 minit dan 50 minit. Kaedah baru untuk penyingkiran testa isirung sawit yang telah dibangunkan dalam kajian ini turut digunakan dalam penyediaan sampel isirung sawit tanpa testa (PKK) dan sampel testa isirung sawit (PKT) yang kedua-duanya diperolehi daripada sampel isirung sawit mentah (RPK). Kandungan kompaun kimia ketiga-tiga jenis sampel RPK, PKK dan PKT kemudiannya ditentukan melalui proses pengekstrakan soxhlet menggunakan n-heksana dan metanol sebagai pelarut. Ekstrak yang diperolehi daripada sampel-sampel tersebut kemudiannya dianalisis menggunakan mesin kromatografi gas-spektrometri jisim (GC-MS), spektroskopi inframerah transformasi Fourier (FTIR) dan spektroskopi resonans magnet nukleus (NMR). A new method was developed in this study for the removal of palm kernel testa from palm kernels utilizing sequential treatment with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). For the treatment of 100 g of palm kernels, the most effective treatment conditions which resulted in a complete removal of the testa were as follows: Na2CO3 concentration (C1) and H2O2 concentration (C2) of 30%; Na2CO3 temperature (T1) and H2O2 temperature (T2) of 90°C and 80°C, respectively; and Na2CO3 treatment duration (t1) and H2O2 treatment duration (t2) of 80 and 50 minutes, respectively. The new palm kernel testa removal method developed in this study was then applied to raw palm kernel (RPK) samples to produce palm kernel without testa (PKK) and palm kernel testa (PKT) samples. The chemical compound content of RPK, PKK and PKT were then determined by subjecting the respective samples to soxhlet extraction using n-hexane and methanol as solvents. The extracts of the respective samples were then subjected to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
    Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General) > T1-995 Technology(General)
    Divisions: Pusat Pengajian Teknologi Industri (School of Industrial Technology) > Thesis
    Depositing User: Mr Noorazilan Noordin
    Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2017 15:06
    Last Modified: 17 Apr 2017 14:52
    URI: http://eprints.usm.my/id/eprint/32196

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