Palm Kernel Testa Removal And Its Effects On Extracted Oil Quality

Wan Sharuddin, Wan Nursyazreen Dalila (2016) Palm Kernel Testa Removal And Its Effects On Extracted Oil Quality. Masters thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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    Abstract

    Isirong kelapa sawit disaluti oleh lapisan nipis perang kegelapan yang merupakan testa. Testa amat sukar untuk tersingkir kerana testa kuat melekat pada biji benih isirong. Kehadiran testa akan menjejaskan warna minyak. Maka, testa akan dibuang sebelum proses pengekstrakan bagi meningkatkan kualiti minyak. Ciri-ciri fizikal isirong kelapa sawit dikenal pasti sebelum dan selepas proses penyingkiran kulit biji isirong kelapa sawit. Kulit biji isirong kelapa sawit telah disingkirkan dari isirong kelapa sawit menggunakan satu kaedah turutan rawatan dengan natrium karbonat (Na2CO3) diikuti dengan hidrogen peroksida (H2O2). Eksperimen penyaringan dan pengoptimuman dijalankan ke atas proses penyingkiran testa dan ditentukan bahawa parameter optimum adalah pada kepekatan Na2CO3 adalah 23% (C1), suhu untuk Na2CO3 adalah 91°C (T1), kepekatan H2O2 adalah 23% (C2), dan suhu untuk H2O2 adalah 86°C (T2), dengan masa 80 min untuk (t1) dan 50 min untuk (t2). Satu model regresi peringkat kedua yang mana telah dikembangkan bersesuaian dengan nilai data R2 adalah sebanyak 0.9259. Palm kernel (PK) has surrounded by a thin dark layer brown which is testa. Testa are very difficult to be removed because testa strongly attached to the kernel seed. The presence of testa will affects the color of the oil. So, the testa needs to be removed before extraction process to improve the quality of oil. The physical characteristics of PK before and after the palm kernel testa (PKT) removal process were investigated. PKT was removed from the palm kernels using a method consisting of sequential treatment with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Screening and optimization experiments carried out on the testa removal process determined that the optimum parameters were at Na2CO3 concentration (C1) of 23%, Na2CO3 temperature (T1) of 91°C, H2O2 concentration (C2) of 23% and H2O2 temperature (T2) of 86°C at 80 min (t1) and 50 min (t2), respectively. A second-order regression model which was developed fitted the data adequately with an R2 value of 0.9259.

    Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
    Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General) > T1-995 Technology(General)
    Divisions: Pusat Pengajian Teknologi Industri (School of Industrial Technology) > Thesis
    Depositing User: Mr Noorazilan Noordin
    Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2017 12:17
    Last Modified: 17 Apr 2017 14:52
    URI: http://eprints.usm.my/id/eprint/31641

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