Kim, Teng Siang (2007) The Modality Factor In Two Approaches Of Abacus-Based Calculation And Its Effects On Mental Arithmetic And School Mathematics Achievements [QA107.2. K49 2007 f rb]. PhD thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Aritmetik mental dalam bentuk Abakus Aritmetik Mental(AMA), telah muncul semula kepentingannya dalam pembelajaran matematik khususnya untuk kanak-kanak awal di Malaysia. Mental arithmetic, in the form of Abacus Mental Arithmetic (AMA), has reemerged in its importance to mathematics learning especially for young children in Malaysia. It was introduced by the government in its effort to rectify the present weakness in Mathematics curriculum and also imbalances in its achievements among the three primary school streams.
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