Effect of bee bread on cardiovascular changes in obese male rats

Othman, Zaidatul Akmal (2022) Effect of bee bread on cardiovascular changes in obese male rats. PhD thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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Obesity and hyperlipidaemia are major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease such as cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. Bee bread has been reported to contains bioactive compositions and exhibit some biological actions against oxidative stress, inflammation, as well as apoptosis in renal and testicular tissues. However, to date, the therapeutic effect of bee bread on cardiovascular changes in obese rats has not been reported. The objectives of this study therefore were to determine (1) the mineral, vitamin, and fatty acid contents of bee bread, (2) the effects of bee bread on obesity and cardiometabolic parameters as well as obesity-cardiomyopathy progression, (3) the effects of bee bread on endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis progression using obese Sprague Dawley rats. Forty male rats weighing 180-230 g were divided into two groups i.e., normal diet (Normal group, n = 10/group) and high-fat diet (HFD group, n = 30). After six weeks, obese rats in the HFD group were administered either with distilled water (OB group), 0.5 g/kg/day bee bread (OB/BB group), and 10 mg/kg/day orlistat (OB/OR group) for another six weeks (n = 10/group). Bee bread and orlistat were suspended in 1 mL distilled water before being administered to the obese rats via oral gavage. At the end of 12th weeks, the rats were sacrificed to obtain serum, heart, aorta, and adipose tissues. Bee bread possesses multi-components of minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids. Bee bread significantly improved obesity and cardiometabolic parameters in obese rats such as Lee obesity, body mass and adiposity indexes, cardiovascular risk ratios, lipid profile, and levels of free fatty acid, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase for muscle and brain, adiponectin, and leptin. Similarly, bee bread also significantly improved oxidant-antioxidant status, inflammation and apoptosis markers in the heart and aorta of the obese rats. Bee bread significantly improved acetylcholine-induced endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation response possibly through activation of eNOS/NO/cGMP-signaling pathway. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in the level of fatty acid synthase in the heart and aorta of obese rats. The findings were further supported by the improvement of obesityrelated histopathological changes in the heart, aorta and adipose tissues of obese rats treated with bee bread. The present study indicates that the beneficial effect of bee bread in treating obesity-related cardiovascular diseases could be through its action by mediating the antioxidant response, inhibiting the inflammatory cascades as well as cellular apoptosis in the heart and aorta of obese animal model. However, further studies are warranted to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms of action of bee bread and its safety to be included as a potential adjuvant or alternative treatment in obese patients.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bee venoms
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Kampus Kesihatan (Health Campus) > Pusat Pengajian Sains Kesihatan (School of Health Sciences) > Thesis
Depositing User: Mr Abdul Hadi Mohammad
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2022 07:38
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2022 07:38
URI: http://eprints.usm.my/id/eprint/55069

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