Silica Supported Indium Heterogeneous Catalyst In Benzylation And Benzoylation Of Toluene

Sek, Kei Lin (2013) Silica Supported Indium Heterogeneous Catalyst In Benzylation And Benzoylation Of Toluene. Masters thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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Indium incorporated silica with different indium content were synthesized via a template free sol-gel method. The silica used was extracted from rice husk (RH) and the resulting catalyst was labeled as RH-xIn (x = 5, 10, 15 and 20). The catalysts were characterized by physico-chemical techniques such as FTIR, N2 adsorption (BET), powder XRD, UV-Vis, SEM, EDX, TEM and AAS for the elemental analysis. RH-blank (without indium) was synthesized as the control for the reaction. No indium was detected in the RH-blank and the percentage of indium was found increase from RH-5In to RH-20In. The N2 adsorption analysis showed the presence of type IV isotherm in RH-blank and RH-xIn, indicating the mesoporous nature of the catalysts. The XRD recorded a broad band at 2θ = 25°, which showed their amorphous character. TEM micrographs revealed the catalysts to be composed of nanoparticles. Friedel-Craft benzylation and benzoylation of toluene with benzyl chloride (BC) and benzoyl chloride (BOZ) were carried out by using RH-xIn (x= 5, 10, 15 and 20) as the catalyst. Benzylation of toluene resulted in 4-methyldiphenylmethane (4-MDM) and 2-methyldiphenylmethane (2-MDM) as the major products while disubstituted products were detected as minor product. Benzoylation of toluene gave 4- methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and 2-methylbenzophenone (2-MBP) as major products, and 3-methylbenzophenone (3-MBP) as the minor product.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical Technology > TP1-1185 Chemical technology
Divisions: Kampus Kejuruteraan (Engineering Campus) > Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Kimia (School of Chemical Engineering) > Thesis
Depositing User: Mr Mohammad Harish Sabri
Date Deposited: 06 Aug 2019 07:08
Last Modified: 06 Aug 2019 07:08

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