A Research On The Potential Of Local Natural Fiber To Produce Handmade Papers For Drawing, Painting And Printmaking

Noor, Ervina Efzan Mhd (2013) A Research On The Potential Of Local Natural Fiber To Produce Handmade Papers For Drawing, Painting And Printmaking. PhD thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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The increased use of electronic devices has increased the usage of solder connections. Lead, the prime solder hitherto used, is hazardous to human health and the environment. Thus, replacing Sn-37Pb with a lead-free solder is one of the most important issues in the electronics industry. As such, the characteristics of In-Bi-Sn and In-Bi-Zn compared with that of the Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy were studied. In the differential scanning calometry analysis, In-Bi-Sn and In-Bi-Zn system alloys presented a low melting temperature of 61.3 °C and 72.3 °C, respectively. Surface tension and contact angle of In-Bi-Sn and In-Bi-Zn lead-free solder alloys were measured on Cu substrate and different surface finishes at 100, 120 and 140 °C reflow. Sessile drop measurements showed that the contact angle depended on the reflow temperature. The contact angle gradually decreased from 30.76° to 17.25° as reflow temperature increased from 100 to 140 °C and for In-Bi-Sn and In-Bi-Zn solder alloy on Cu substrate, ranged from 58° to 7° after wetting on Ni/Cu substrate at the same reflow temperature range (100 to 140°C). Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis found two layers of intermetallic compound in the In-Bi-Sn solder alloy: Cu6Sn5 and Cu11In9 (scallop shaped) and Cu11In9 (brightly coloured) with Cu and Sn/Cu substrate. The IMC between the In-Bi-Zn solder alloy could be observed: Cu5Zn8 (continuous planar) and Cu11In9, a minor IMC layer with Cu and Sn/Cu substrate. However, only one type of IMC was formed between both solders (In-Bi- Sn and In-Bi-Zn) and Ni/Cu substrate, which was InNi2. As the reflow temperature increased, the shear strength of the In-Bi-Sn and In-Bi-Zn solder alloys on Cu, Ni/Cu and Sn/Cu joints improved due to reduced contact angle and larger spreading area.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Subjects: T Technology > TN Mining Engineering. Metallurgy > TN1-997 Mining engineering. Metallurgy
Divisions: Kampus Kejuruteraan (Engineering Campus) > Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahan & Sumber Mineral (School of Material & Mineral Resource Engineering) > Thesis
Depositing User: Mr Mohammad Harish Sabri
Date Deposited: 18 Feb 2019 03:17
Last Modified: 12 Apr 2019 05:26
URI: http://eprints.usm.my/id/eprint/43372

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