A pilot study of risk factors in cleft lip/palate patients in Kelantan

Ismail, Abdul Rashid Haji and Ismail, Noorliza Mastura and Naing, Lin and Rowi, Rowani Mohd (2003) A pilot study of risk factors in cleft lip/palate patients in Kelantan. In: A pilot study of risk factors in cleft lip/palate patients in Kelantan, 21 February 2004, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. (Submitted)

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About 2-3% of pregnancies result in neonates with serious genetic diseases or birth defects causing disabilities, mental retardation, and in some cases early death. Non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a common craniofacial anomaly affecting between lin 700 and 1 in 1000 births in the UK and USA respectively. In Malaysia, studies of school children showed the incidence of 1 in every 941 subjects examined. The risks of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate (CLP) are influenced by variations at several loci of the gene and these loci interact with environmental factors to determine disease risk.The aim of the study is to establish the relationship between risk factors and incidence of cleft lip and palate and further enhance research activities in finding specific genetic factors that are sensitive to the risk factors.This is a case controlled study of non-syndromic CLP patients attending combined clinic in Kota Bharu and patients attending outpatient clinic in HUSM. Information was obtained by interviewing parents using questionnaires. Patients attending CLP clinic were first interviewed. The age of the control group was restricted to age. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data.More than 90% of the subjects are Malays from lower socio-economic status. It was found that demographically there are variations to risks of non-syndromic CLP. People from Tanah Merah and Tumpat are 8.74 fold increase risk compared to people from Kota Bharu. There is association between passive smokers and CLP(OR)= 2.45(95% CI: 1.5,3.94). Maternal and paternal history of cleft, occupation of father and position of child in the family increase the risk of CLP (p=0.009).The study suggested that there are some geographical variations in the risk of CLP. Copper et al (2000) believed that the variation could indicate environmental factors such as seasonal availability of nutrients, infectious disease circle and vitamin deficiency during pregnancy. Exposure to cigarette smoke (passive smokers) is shown to increase the risk of CLP. This is consistent with the findings of Wyszynski et al (1997).The seventh child and above have increased risk of CLP. This could be due to increased maternal age as consistently in other studies.This analysis suggests a small but statistically significant association between maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester of gestation and increased risk of having child with CLP.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Risk factors non-syndromic cleft lip/palate socio-economic status geographical variation
Subjects: R Medicine > RD Surgery > RD520-599.5 Surgery by region, system, or organ
Divisions: Kampus Kesihatan (Health Campus) > Pusat Pengajian Sains Pergigian (School of Dental Sciences) > Conference or Workshop Item
Depositing User: Mr Abdul Hadi Mohammad
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2020 08:00
Last Modified: 22 Mar 2020 08:01
URI: http://eprints.usm.my/id/eprint/42623

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